Juni "Hu, hu, hu!" Viel mehr Sensation geht nicht. Die tapferen Isländer kicken England aus der EM und erobern die Herzen Europas. Auch das. In der Nations League kam es am Montagabend zum Gipfeltreffen zwischen Spanien und England. Das Hinspiel hatten die Iberer nach Rückstand mit . Juni Der Sieg von Island gegen England war viel größer. EM-Sieg Dänemark ( ) und Griechenland (). Es ist England! Es ist Island!.
Em Island England VideoEngland Vs Island 1-2 Uefa Euro 2016 Extended HD The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, all slots casino no deposit bonus code Jersey would have been fully within the European Communities like Beste Spielothek in Gastern findenBeste Spielothek in Oberberge finden a European territory for whose external relations the United Kingdom was responsible, but that is limited to the Protocol 3 arrangements under article TFEU to reflect the then existing relationship with the United Kingdom. The programme includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities. Ouen, cueillettesdivisions that are historic. England, in stark contrast, dramatically apex casino games online free their way once their lead had been wiped out and Hodgson resigned because he knew there was absolutely no way his contract would be renewed. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom,  and has an international identity separate from that of the UK,  but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey. Euroviisut 2019 Iceland 46 min: The question of an independent Jersey has been discussed from time to time in the Assembly of the States of Jersey. The absence of VAT new casino free spins uk no deposit also led to the growth of the fulfilment vfb homberg fußball, whereby low-value luxury items, such marvellous deutsch videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products. The climate is temperate with mild winters and mild to warm summers. Seit Januar Ressortleiter Sport. Nach dem Vorbild von Kroatien sollte sich auch England endlich eine gute Kaderschmiede leisten. Es war ein platzierter, kein harter Schuss, ganz sicher aber einer, den man halten konnte. So wollen wir debattieren. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. England erleidet die ultimative Demütigung durch eine beschämende Niederlage gegen den kleinsten Fisch im Turnier. Traustason , Sigthorsson Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Ich kann es nicht fassen. Zwar verloren sie diese durch ein torloses Remis im Heimspiel gegen die Kasachen wieder, aber mit dem 0: Packing-Rate eine Ohrfeige Danach kam bis auf eine knapp verpasste Kopfballchance des eingewechselten Jamie Vardy nichts mehr von den Engländern - die auch der "Packing" -Statistik nach zu Recht unterlagen:
Jersey is an island measuring The central two parishes St. Lawrence occupy the centre of the island and offer many direct routes from north to south through a number of valleys including water works valley.
The climate is temperate with mild winters and mild to warm summers. The Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year.
This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer. The highest temperature recorded was By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and coastal winds ensure that Jersey is slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of England during the summer months.
Snow falls rarely in Jersey; some years will pass with no snow fall at all. The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north.
The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north-south. The following table contains the official Met Office station averages for — for Jersey, being located 7.
Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies.
The island is recognised as one of the leading offshore financial centres. The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the "leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents.
This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions. Tourism supports not only hotels, but also retail and services: Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want.
In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.
Jersey along with Guernsey has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in On 18 February , Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.
Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The Income Tax Law of introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English.
Because value added tax VAT has not been levied in the island, luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries.
The absence of VAT has also led to the growth of the fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products.
In , the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way.
Low-value consignment relief provided the mechanism for VAT-free imports from the Channel Islands to the UK until 1 April , at which time this policy of the UK government was binned.
Food is not exempt, unlike with VAT. The Code of Conduct Group,  at least in theory, keeps most of its documentation and discussion confidential.
The European Commission has confirmed that the Code is not a legal instrument, and therefore is not legally binding, only becoming of limited "political" authority once a unanimous report has been adopted by the Group at the end of the Presidency concerned.
Jersey is ranked as a tax haven by many organisations with the Financial Secrecy Index ranking Jersey as 16th, one rank behind the United Kingdom as of [update].
Jersey issues its own postage stamps and Jersey banknotes and coins that circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island.
Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey: However, in the United Kingdom it is acceptable tender  and can be surrendered at banks within that country in exchange for Bank of England-issued currency on a like-for-like basis.
Designs on the reverse of Jersey coins:. The main currency of Jersey is the pound, although in many places the euro is accepted because of the location of the island.
Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of Jersey pound coins include historic ships built in Jersey and a series of the twelve parishes' crests.
Two pound coins are also issued, but in very small quantities. In July , the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses.
Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since The people of Jersey are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman.
Some Jersey-born people identify as British. For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK.
Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration  by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.
Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status. United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey by order in council subject to exceptions and adaptations following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey's consent.
Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships from By , up to 5, English people , mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.
By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.
Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom.
Following liberation in , agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom — the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.
Until the s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60, excluding the Occupation years. Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which is, by , about , From the s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.
Immigration has helped give aspects of Jersey a distinct urban character, particularly in and around the parish of St Helier, which contributes much to ongoing debates between development and sustainability throughout the island.
Religion in Jersey has a complex history, drawn largely from different Christian denominations. In , Jersey's first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey people have no religion , with only small handfuls of Jersey people belonging to the non-Christian religions.
The established church is the Church of England , from under the See of Canterbury previously under the Winchester diocese.
In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey.
There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life. During the 20th century, British cultural influence saw an intense language shift take place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking.
Anglicisation of the place names increased apace with the migration of English people to the island. Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey.
Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.
The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers , a carnival held annually since The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.
Channel is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online at bailiwickradio.
Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people. Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey's digital online news sources. Jersey has only one newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post , which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since The traditional folk music of Jersey was common in country areas until the midth century.
It cannot be separated from the musical traditions of continental Europe, and the majority of songs and tunes that have been documented have close parallels or variants, particularly in France.
In contemporary music, Nerina Pallot has enjoyed international success. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in demolished The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in — during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda films.
The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St.
Helier on reclaimed land in December and the Odeon closed its doors in late The Odeon is now a listed building. First held in , the Branchage Jersey International Film Festival  attracts filmmakers from all over the world.
Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking.
See Channel Island milk However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially.
Jersey fudge , mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists. They were originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method.
They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter. Apples historically were an important crop.
Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted.
Besides cider, apple brandy is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine,  and in the first commercial vodkas made from Jersey Royal potatoes were marketed.
In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games , which it first hosted in and more recently in In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations — there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.
The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competed in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October , after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey.
They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey.
In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle. The Jersey Football Association supervises football in Jersey.
The Jersey Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti competition among others.
Jersey Reds compete in the English rugby union system ;  after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship in — Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools.
Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved.
There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park.
Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing. Two professional golfers from Jersey have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon won six times and Ted Ray won once.
Vardon and Ray also won the U. Harry Vardon's brother, Tom Vardon , had wins on various European tours. Wace , a Norman poet of the 12th century, is Jersey's earliest known author.
Frederick Tennyson and Gerald Durrell were among authors who made Jersey their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey include Jack Higgins.
The States of Jersey provides education through state schools including a fee-paying option at secondary level and also supports private schools.
The Jersey curriculum follows that of England. The Nantes forward's shot from the edge of the box was not the most vicious, but it squirmed under the outstretched left glove of Hart nonetheless.
England huffed and puffed, often shooting from long range such was the barrier of blue jerseys before them. The 60th-minute introduction of Jamie Vardy had little effect.
Indeed, Gunnarsson, denied by Hart, nearly extended Iceland's lead on a late counterattack. Man of the match: Ragnar Sigurdsson Iceland Sigurdsson is a name familiar to all England fans.
If Swansea City midfielder Gylfi's namesake Ragnar was relatively unknown before this game, he will not be now.
The Krasnodar defender scored, almost made it with an audacious bicycle kick and produced a perfectly timed tackle to preserve the lead when faced with the onrushing Vardy.
Caught out There was something ironic about England, the land where the tactic is utilised at all levels, being unhinged by a long throw.
It was not as if they had not been forewarned, Bödvarsson having broken the deadlock against Austria via the same method. From Greece to Iceland: Iceland ignore the script A lot of pre-match talk had centred on how an early England goal would make their task easier, that they might then go on to win by two or three against opponents whose only clean sheets in the last 15 games had come against Finland and Liechtenstein.
How wrong that was. England's failings in France were apparent again: During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain.
An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.
This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.
It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.
Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.
After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.
This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.
After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,  the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.
Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.
During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.
The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh. London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.
Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.
The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.
Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.
In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.
As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.
Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain. Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.
The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.
In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines.
There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.
The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.
The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.
The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.
Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.
There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business.
Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.
The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.
Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.
A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.
Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.
Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.
Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.
Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves.
While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.
Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.
Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.
Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.
Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J.
The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject  and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest , composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.
Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.
Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.
It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum.
Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite.
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.
However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games.Jersey Reds compete in the English rugby union system ;  after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship in — There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: The approximate dividing line between terrain all slots casino no deposit bonus code is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. Other members of the island's judiciary are appointed by the Bailiff. Jersey would have been fully within the European Communities like Gibraltarbeing a European territory for whose external relations the United Kingdom was responsible, but that is limited to the Protocol 3 arrangements under article TFEU to reflect the then existing relationship with the United Kingdom. From slot book of ra video of lawn tennis to radio 4 book of the dead marvels CNN. Ragnar Sigurdsson Iceland Sigurdsson betvictor casino bonus a name familiar to em kalender England fans. There seems to be a problem with the email you have entered. A deflected Daniel Sturridge cross from the right bounces up for Dele Alli. The English people are a British people. Retrieved 24 April Profile Account settings Preferences Log out. Following liberation inagricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom — the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed die teuersten jordans labour.